Albania

EU candidate country

Population: 2,9 Mio

Capital: Tirana

Municipal solid waste management in Albania is at a low level, the current level of recycling is almost nonexistent, and there is a complete lack of separate collection of the generated waste as most of it continues to be disposed of unsafely in legal and illegal dumpsites or burned. The target of the National Waste Management Plan 2010-2025 aims at recycling/ composting 25 % of MSW by 2015 and at recycling/composting 55 % of MSW by 2020.

EPR is currently not  included in the legislation.

Armenia

Member of the Eurasian Economic Union (from January 2015)

Population: 3 Mio

Capital: Yerevan

There is an urgent need to improve waste management practices across Armenia, with waste currently being dumped at uncontrolled dumpsites with unacceptable technical and environmental standards.
In summer 2016 The Armenian parliament ratified a loan agreement signed with European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), which is providing a €8 million loan to Armenia to finance the construction of a solid waste landfill in Yerevan that will comply with EU regulations. The construction works are due to start in 2021.

EPR is currently not  included in the legislation. Armenia is in a process to define and design its Extended Producers Responsibility (EPR) policy and legislation; The EU-Armenia Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement requires that EPR is implemented in the Armenian legislation by 2023.

Belarus

Member of the Eurasian Economic Union (from January 2000)

Population: 9,5 Mio

Capital: Minsk 

Citizen of Belarus produce ca. 3 million tons of municipal solid waste and ca. 85% of it is sent to landfill. The existing landfills in Belarus often do not satisfy the basic health and safety standards and pose a major threat to the environment. The 15% recycling is based on the recyclables buy-back centers, which buy certain materials from the citizens – a legacy of the Soviet time recovery system. 

Producer responsibility: Producers and importers of packaging, oils, tires, electrical and electronic equipment must ensure collection and recycling of their product wastes or pay respective fees to the state recycling organization (the President Order No 313).

Bosnia

Population: 3,5 Mio

Capital: Sarajevo

Waste represents one of the main environmental issues in BiH with issues arising mainly due to the inadequate management, lack of infrastructure and social attitude towards waste. The current problem of insufficient waste disposal system capacities has led to considerable quantities of waste being dumped illegally at roadsides, in rivers, abandoned mines, and similar places, posing threats to public health and the environment. No waste incineration facilities are currently operated in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Recyclables are separated from the mixed municipal waste amount to less than 5 % of the total municipal waste mass (estimate), while at least 95 % of the collected mixed municipal waste is disposed of mostly on non-sanitary disposal sites.

EPR:
–      Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Users of packaging must ensure collection and recycling of their product wastes or pay respective fees to the compliance scheme.
–      Republika Srpska: n/a

Bulgaria

Population: 7,3 Mio

Capital: Sofia

Bulgaria generated in 2014 442 kg of municipal waste per capita. 23% of it was recycled, 2% composted, 2% incinerated and 74% landfilled (EUROSTAT). Bulgaria has a relatively well-developed municipal waste collection system, and presently about 98% of the population is provided with collection services. The services are financed through the municipal waste tax. The private sector is largely involved in the collection of municipal waste, and its market share exceeds 80%.

EPR is applied to packaging, batteries, and WEEE. Product fees are applicable if recycling targets/compliance requirements are not met.

Croatia

Member of the EU

Population: 4,2 Mio

Capital: Zagreb

Croatia generated in 2014 387 kg of municipal waste per capita. 15% of it was recycled, 2% composted and 83% landfilled (EUROSTAT).

EPR: Environment Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund is established, which takes care of packaging, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), end-of-life vehicles (ELV), batteries and accumulators (B&A) recycling. The Fund is financed by the fees paid by the producers and importers.

A mandatory deposit system for PET containers and cans was introduced in 2006 with a voluntary deposit for fillers of glass containers.

Czechia

Member of the EU

Population: 10,6 Mio

Capital: Prague

Czechia generated in 2014 310 kg of municipal waste per capita. 23% of it was recycled, 3% composted. 19% incinerates and 56% landfilled (EUROSTAT).

EPR is applied to packaging, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), end-of-life vehicles (ELV), batteries and accumulators (B&A). The compliance can be achieved by signing a contract with a Compliance Scheme.

Estonia

Member of the EU

Population: 1,3 Mio

Capital: Tallinn

Estonia generated in 2014 357 kg of municipal waste per capita. 31% of it was recycled, 6% composted, 56% incinerates and 8% landfilled (EUROSTAT).

EPR is applied to the packaging, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), end-of-life vehicles (ELV), batteries and accumulators (B&A). The compliance can be achieved by signing a contract with a Compliance Scheme.

 A mandatory beverage packaging deposit system for one-way and refillable PET, glass containers, and metal cans was introduced in 2005.

Hungary

Member of the EU

Population: 9,8 Mio

Capital: Budapest

Hungary generated in 2014 385 kg of municipal waste per capita. 25% of it was recycled, 6% composted, 10% incinerated and 59% landfilled (EUROSTAT).

EPR: The National Waste Management Directorate is a public body whose task is to ensure collection and recycling of waste generated from products under the product fee obligation. It includes packaging, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), end-of-life vehicles (ELV), batteries and accumulators (B&A). The system is financed by the product fees paid by the producers and importers.