Kazakhstan

Member of the Eurasian Economic Union (from January 2000)

Population: 17,2 Mio

Capital: Astana

According to the Ministry of Environment, the country has accumulated 23 billion tons of municipal solid waste (MSW). Only 3-5% of municipal solid waste is being recycled. About 97% is transported to the dump sites, which pose significant environmental threats to the soil, air (landfill fires), ground water and cities nearby. State supervision over the waste management practices is very poor. The greatest amount of MSW is concentrated in Almaty, the most populous city in the country.

EPR: packaging waste, end-of-life vehicles (ELV), batteries and accumulators (B&A), oils are subject to EPR legislation. The importers must ensure self-compliance or pay a fee to a government-appointed private company called EPR Operator Ltd.

Kosovo

Population: 1,8 Mio

Capital: Pristina

Kosova has a serious problem with municipal waste management. Waste is not being collected by Regional Waste Companies in the country’s entire territory. Only 50% of the population receive waste collection service, out of which 90% live in urban areas and 10% in rural areas. Even where waste is being collected, the services provided are not at the required level. This has resulted in illegal dumpsites in public spaces and poor environmental conditions in the country.

EPR is currently not  included in the legislation.

Kyrgyzstan

Population: 6 Mio

Capital: Bishkek

Management of municipal solid waste do not comply with sanitary and environmental requirements, For example, Bishkek municipal landfill (lacking bottom-sealing to prevent the pollution of soil and groundwater) designed for 3.3 million cubic meters presently contains 24 million cubic meters of household waste.

The collection of municipal waste in urban areas has been drastically reduced since the beginning of the 1990s due to the financial difficulties experienced by the municipal sector. In rural areas, many settlements do not have any regular waste collection at all.

EPR is currently not  included in the legislation.

Latvia

Member of the EU

Population: 2 Mio

Capital: Riga

Latvia generated in 2014 281 kg of municipal waste per capita. 3% of it was recycled, 5% composted and 92% landfilled (EUROSTAT).

EPR is applied to the packaging, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), end-of-life vehicles (ELV), batteries and accumulators (B&A). The compliance can be achieved by signing a contract with a Compliance Scheme.

Lithuania

Member of the EU
Population: 3 Mio
Capital: Vilnius

Latvia generated in 2014 433 kg of municipal waste per capita. 21% of it was recycled, 10% composted, 9% incinerated and 60% landfilled (EUROSTAT).

EPR is applied to the packaging, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), end-of-life vehicles (ELV), batteries and accumulators (B&A). The compliance can be achieved by signing a contract with a Compliance Scheme.

A mandatory beverage packaging deposit system for one-way and refillable PET, glass containers, and metal cans was introduced in 2016.

Republic of North Macedonia

EU candidate country

Population: 2,1 Mio

Capital: Skopje

Republic of North Macedonia generated in 2014 370 kg of municipal waste per capita and 100% was landfilled (EUROSTAT).
MSW collection systems cover approximately 77 % of the national population.

EPR: Producer responsibility for packaging waste entered into force in January 2010 and for WEEE and Batteries in 2012.

Montenegro

EU candidate country

Population: 0,6 Mio

Capital: Podgorica

Montenegro generated in 2014 508 kg and treated 451 kg of municipal waste per capita. 1% was recycled and 99% was landfilled
(EUROSTAT).

EPR: n/a

Poland

Member of the EU

Population: 38,5 Mio

Capital: Warsaw

Poland generated in 2014 272 kg of municipal waste per capita. 21% of it was recycled, 11% composted, 15% incinerated and 53% landfilled (EUROSTAT).

EPR is applied to the packaging, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), end-of-life vehicles (ELV), batteries and accumulators (B&A). The compliance can be achieved by signing a contract with a Compliance Scheme.

Romania

Member of the EU

Population: 20 Mio

Capital: Bukarest

Romania generated in 2014 254 kg of municipal waste per capita. 5% of it was recycled, 11% composted, 2% incinerated and 82% landfilled (EUROSTAT).

EPR is applied to the packaging, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), end-of-life vehicles (ELV), batteries and accumulators (B&A). The compliance can be achieved by signing a contract with a Compliance Scheme.

Russia

Member of the Eurasian Economic Union (from January 2000)

Population: 143,5 Mio

Capital: Moscow

The volume of MSW in Russia has been steadily increasing in recent years: according to available data, more than 48 million metric tons of MSW was generated in 2010 — i.e., more than 330 kilograms per capita per year. This is significantly lower than the EU’s generation rate of 510 kilograms but much higher than Russia’s own generation rate in 2000. It is expected that by 2025 MSW generation in Russia will reach 450 to 500 kilograms per capita per year, or more than 60 million metric tons of MSW annually. At present, around 95 percent of all MSW is sent for disposal: a situation which, inevitably, has negative environmental and economic consequences.
More than 80 percent of landfill sites came into existence more than 20 years ago: while this varies according to location, up to 30 percent do not meet current sanitary standards. Toxic substances accumulate in a landfill, infiltrating the soil and groundwater and polluting the air. This can have a number of short-term effects (such as combustion and landfill fires) as well as long-term impacts (decreased biodiversity, soil fertility and harm to human health). (Source: IFC).

Municipal solid waste (MSW) management

MSW generated:

2012 – 66,4 Mio t
2013 – 67 Mio t
2014 – 70,8 Mio t

MSW recovery (waste burning and recycling)

2012 – 10,1%
2013 – 9,5 %
2014 – 7,5 %

Producer’s responsibility and EPR

Russian Federation Law On Industrial and Consumer Waste (№ 458-FZ) establish obligation for the producers and importers of certain products and packaging (36 groups of goods like electronics, furniture, textile, packaging, oils, paper products, etc.) to ensure the post-consumer recycling of their products and packaging after they become waste or pay eco-fee to the state.

The recycling targets are defined for various goods and packaging. In 2016 seven groups of goods and packaging have a target from 5-20% and in 2017 eight groups of goods and packaging have a target from 5-30%.

If the product or packaging is produced from recyclable material (also partially), certain target reduction applies.

If the targets are not met, eco fee is payable to the state budget. Administrative penalty applies for non-compliers (in addition to the payment of the eco-fee)