Member of the Eurasian Economic Union (from January 2000)
Population: 143,5 Mio
The volume of MSW in Russia has been steadily increasing in recent years: according to available data, more than 48 million metric tons of MSW was generated in 2010 — i.e., more than 330 kilograms per capita per year. This is significantly lower than the EU’s generation rate of 510 kilograms but much higher than Russia’s own generation rate in 2000. It is expected that by 2025 MSW generation in Russia will reach 450 to 500 kilograms per capita per year, or more than 60 million metric tons of MSW annually. At present, around 95 percent of all MSW is sent for disposal: a situation which, inevitably, has negative environmental and economic consequences.
More than 80 percent of landfill sites came into existence more than 20 years ago: while this varies according to location, up to 30 percent do not meet current sanitary standards. Toxic substances accumulate in a landfill, infiltrating the soil and groundwater and polluting the air. This can have a number of short-term effects (such as combustion and landfill fires) as well as long-term impacts (decreased biodiversity, soil fertility and harm to human health). (Source: IFC).
Municipal solid waste (MSW) management
2012 – 66,4 Mio t
2013 – 67 Mio t
2014 – 70,8 Mio t
MSW recovery (waste burning and recycling)
2012 – 10,1%
2013 – 9,5 %
2014 – 7,5 %
Producer’s responsibility and EPR
Russian Federation Law On Industrial and Consumer Waste (№ 458-FZ) establish obligation for the producers and importers of certain products and packaging (36 groups of goods like electronics, furniture, textile, packaging, oils, paper products, etc.) to ensure the post-consumer recycling of their products and packaging after they become waste or pay eco-fee to the state.
The recycling targets are defined for various goods and packaging. In 2016 seven groups of goods and packaging have a target from 5-20% and in 2017 eight groups of goods and packaging have a target from 5-30%.
If the product or packaging is produced from recyclable material (also partially), certain target reduction applies.
If the targets are not met, eco fee is payable to the state budget. Administrative penalty applies for non-compliers (in addition to the payment of the eco-fee)